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# Overview of Experiments with Fluids

by Ron Kurtus (revised 7 November 2012)

A fluid is a form of matter that is in the liquid, gas or plasma state. Fluids have special properties, distinct from solids.

You should be aware of their various properties before deciding on an experiement or demonstration with fluids.

Fluid experiments concern determining the important factors involved in fluids, measuring these factors, and determining the relationship between factors or optimizing the values. Sometimes unique or new methods can be invented.

Questions you may have include:

- What are major properties of fluids?
- How are they measured?
- What experiments can determine relationships or optimal values?

This lesson will answer those questions.

## Properties of fluids

The most important property of fluids is that they flow. That is what defines a fluid. Some other properties include:

- Pressure at a given point in a fluid is in all directions
- Pressure increases with depth, due to the effect of gravity
- Hydraulic principles apply in closed containers
- There is a relationship between pressure, volume and temperature in a closed container, especially with gases

## Measurements

Experiments require measurements or data-taking. Variables you can measure include:

- Pressure on the walls of a container
- Internal pressure
- External pressure
- Density of the fluid
- Temperature of the fluid
- Volume
- Depth
- Velocity of the fluid flow

There are devices that are specifically made to measure fluid pressure. Also, since pressure equals force per unit area, in some situations you can use some configuration with a scale to calculate the pressure.

Coming up with clever ways to measure things is one of the greatest challenges in performing experiments.

## Experiments

The objective of your experiment can be to find a relationship between factors or to optimize or find the best value. Possible experiments include:

- Measure the density of a fluid
- Find the weight of an object in water
- Find the volume of an irregularly shaped object
- Use a fluid to find the density of a solid
- Show how pressure increases with depth in a fluid
- Show relationship between spigot size and fluid velocity

## Summary

Fluid experiments concern determining the important factors involved in causing Fluid, measuring these factors, and determining the relationship between factors or optimizing the values to either increase or decrease Fluid. Sometimes unique or new methods can be invented.

Take advantage of opportunities

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