Reader questions and feedback on Physics. Also refer to physical science, chemistry, astronomy, electricity, magnetism, electromagnet, light, sound, waves, forces, work, energy, friction, heat, thermodynamics, Ron Kurtus, School for Champions. Copyright © Restrictions
Answers to Readers' Questions on Physics:
List of next 10 items
- Effects of gravity on molecules in a plasma state
- Is a tomato breaking down entropy?
- Why do some items burn?
- Heating by reflected light
- What is happening with entropy?
- Why does temperature and volume matter?
- Expansion of iron
- What happens with entropy?
- Thermodynamics with the car engine
- Charles Law problem
October 24, 2005
I just stumbled across your site while looking for some information on the effects of gravity on a huge body of molecules in a plasma state. I wonder if you could offer me some guidance upon this question:
In a huge body of simple molecules (hydrogen and helium for example) super heated to a plasmatic state, would the kinetic energy of the molecules (whether individually or corporately) be stronger or weaker than the gravitational attraction between them (whether individually or corporately)? As per this question, these elements would have no external forces acting upon them.
Can trace minerals exist in an environment of 2000+k?
If an outside source of radiation WERE to emit from a large source upon a single side of a superhot nebula, what would you expect the reaction of these molecules to be to that outside force? (assume that the radiation is in the form of the entire short wave band)
Mark - USA
Gravity is a very weak force at the atomic level. A huge body of superheated H and He, such as the Sun will exert gravity to outside masses, but the force of attraction between the atoms themselves would be so much smaller than their KE, that there would be no real effect.
There have been trace metals detected on stars with temperatures around 6000 K.
I'm not sure of the last question.
September 2, 2005
I know, or think I know, that entropy is part of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. As I understand it the more disorder of a system the more entropy. The less disorder the less entropy. My question to you is this:
If I have a beautiful red tomato. The tomato seems very organized. I put the tomato out on a table and leave it there. Gradually the tomato starts breaking down and becomes ugly and a mass of glob. Is this entropy?
Harry - USA
Entropy really concerns the averaging out of energy. If one side of a metal rod is hot and the other side is cold, it will soon reach an average temperature.
Although people apply the idea of entropy to different things--like the example of a tomato decaying--it is really just a metaphor. The tomato breaks down because bacteria is working on it.
I've never liked the use of entropy as some property, just like the idea that heat is a fluid. It is better to look at it in terms of movement of molecules.
May 5, 2005
Why do some ideams burn when others do not?
Burning is usually combining with Oxygen. Chemicals that combine with Oxygen will get hot and burn as part of the chemical combination. Many chemicals and materials do not combine with Oxygen. Lead is an example of something that does not combine or burn.
February 27, 2005
I've been trying to find out from a knowledgeable source if sunlight reflected off a mirror to a surface causes the temperature of surface the sunlight is being reflected on to increase?
Jim - USA
About 98% of the light hitting a mirror is reflected. The remaining is absorbed, heating the mirror slightly. Some of the reflected light will then be absorbed by the surface it hits, increasing its temperature. How much is absorbed depends on the type of surface and its color. A black, rough surface would absorb very much of the light energy and heat up the most.
January 26, 2005
Is it possible to prove or even show that with entropy the universe would eventually ripe itself to pieces? and if so how did it start in the first place? was it creation or evolution? Beacuse with evolution you would have to have something before the big bang to get the ingredients for the big bang. Thanks for letting me ask. JF
Jared - USA
Entropy is a measure of the state of disorder or randomness of a system. The law of entropy saws that things are getting more random. Another way of looking at it is that the temperature of all things is slowly averaging out. You put hot and cold together and soon you get luke warm. Likewise if you take a firecracker and explode it, the parts become very disordered.
In the big bang theory the universe had little disorder but after the explosion, it has more and more--like the firecracker. But also order was created as stars were formed from gasses.
There are some religions that somehow relate entropy to evolution. They have nothing to do with each other. The theory of evolution states that animals have slowly evolved or developed from one species to another. It does not say how it happened or whether God was controlling the process.
December 11, 2004
I knew that temperature affect the volume of a contained gas, I also could explain how temperature affect the volume of a contained gas by a experiment, but I don't know why it matters?
Wendy - USA
These effects are used in air pumps, refrigeration, hot air balloons and racing car tires, to name a few.
November 17, 2004
If a rod is made of iron on one side and wood on the other and it is suspended with a thread. What will happen to the iron part of the rod if it is heated? Will it go up or down?
Sophie - Singapore
I assume the weight of both are the same and the thread is tied in the middle between them. The the iron will expand more when heated, but its weight will remain the same. Thus the balance will remain the same.
August 25, 2004
i am a postgraduate in chemistry
my q is as
1.entropy of the universe in increasing that means energy available to do work is decreasing,what will happen when total energyis converted into work
dharam - India
Kinetic Energy is the movement of matter. Work is movement against a force, such as gravity.
The entropy theory really states that all motion and energy will average out over time. That is unlikely, because the laws of probability state that random motion will always have places of higher and lower energy.
April 1, 2004
hi??? i m syahmi bin rose. im a student . study at malaysian intitute of chemical & bio engineering. here i have one question that i would to ask somebody there about principal of thermodynamics.i would like to ask about relationship between thermodynamics with the car engine.
syahmi - Malaysia
Thermodynamics in a car engine concerns changing heat energy into kinetic energy, the conservation of energy, and the cooling of the engine.
March 18, 2004
Hi, I have a physical science test tommorow and i'm doing terrible in that class but i recently got a grip on it and some what understand it but i still dont know what to do when caculating charles law
example question:340ml of bromine at 15degrees-C is cooled to -12degrees-C. WHAT IS THE NEW VOLUME?
I UNDERSTAND THAT FIRST YOU MUST MUST CONVERT CELCIUS TO FAR. AND USE VAIBLES LIKE V1 AND V2 - i KNOW THAT V1=340 BUT IM STUCK ON THE MATH PART WHAT EXACTLY DO I HAVE TO DO TO FIQURE OUT V2?
PLASE EMAIL ME back as soon as possible i have a major test tommorow!
3-18-04 my test is on 3-19-04
Aleshia - USA
You really need to change celsius to kelvin (just add 273 degrees) to use Charles' Law. 15C = 288K and -12C = 261K
Then you have V/340 = 261/288. Solve for V.
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