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Overview of States of Matter Experiments

by Ron Kurtus (updated 21 November 2022)

There are three major states of matter that are dependent on temperature and pressure: Solid, liquid, and gaseous states. A fourth state—plasmas—require both heat and electrical effects. Since they are difficult to create, they are seldom studied in science projects.

Areas of interest include special properties of the various states of matter, different methods of changing the states of matter, and experiments on adding factors that affect the rate that the matter changes its states.

Questions you may have include:

This lesson will answer those questions.

Properties of various states of matter

You can consider a material such as water and examine the various properties when it is in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. One important property is the temperature and conditions affecting the change in state.

You could perform experiments to see what would happen if you changed certain factors.

Another interesting material to examine is dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide). Under normal conditions dry ice goes from the solid to the gaseous states, bypassing the liquid state.


Experiments require measurements or data-taking. Variables you can measure include:

There are devices that are specifically made to measure the variables.

Coming up with clever ways to measure things is one of the greatest challenges in performing experiments.


You can perform experiments to discover interesting facts or to verify what scientists have claimed. Some interesting topics and questions concerning the states of matter include:

The objective of your experiment can be to find a relationship between factors or to optimize or find the best value. Possible experiments include:


Do these experiments to answer your questions or to verify what you believe are the correct answers.

Learn as much as you can

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